Dawn Raids (New Zealand)
Where can I find information about the Dawn Raids in the 1970s in New Zealand?
Image: Police vehicles in Taumarunui Fire Brigade 100th parade by 111 Emergency on Wikimedia Commons.
Entry last updated: 13/09/21
In the 1970s the New Zealand police went to the homes of Pacific Islanders who they believed had overstayed their visas or work permits. Many people were sent back to the Pacific Islands. The police would often arrive very early in the morning and so they became known as the dawn raids.
The regulations on overstayers had not been enforced in this way before and many people have criticised how the government handled the situation. At the time it was argued the enforcement was justified in light of the economic downturn that meant fewer jobs and higher welfare costs in New Zealand.
History of the dawn raids
In this section, we'll look at some reliable New Zealand websites that are best for this topic. They have articles, stories, recordings, images and videos, some of which are good primary sources on the dawn raids.
Let's start with some terminology:
- visas and work permits are documents that allow a person to come into New Zealand and work for a set period of time.
- overstayers are people whose permits and visas have expired.
Te Ara is an excellent starting point for all questions about New Zealand Aotearoa. If we scroll down to the bottom of the page we can see that the website belongs to the Ministry for Culture & Heritage, so the information is well-researched and reliable.
- If you search using the keywords 'dawn raids' you will see that there is information spread over several different entries, including Intolerance towards Pacific migrants.
- You will also see a link to images and media which includes photographs, pamphlets and film clips from the time.
Tips: Many web pages have links to further information or to other recommended sites. Following these links is a great way to find out more. This searching method is called “pearl growing” because you are picking up pieces of sand to make a beautiful pearl!
NZHistory is a great website for information about New Zealand Aotearoa. If we go all the way down the page we can see that the website belongs to the Ministry for Culture & Heritage, so the information is well-researched and reliable.
- Search for 'dawn raids'.
- Read the article The dawn raids: causes, impacts and legacy.
- Or find the page 1976- key events.
- This article is shorter, but it is placed in context so you can read what else was happening in New Zealand at the same time.
Tips: Try using a variety of search words, or keywords in your searches, e.g. overstayers , immigration, race relations. Also try some more specific search words like Samoan and Tongan . You will get different results using different keywords.
This is an online showcase of New Zealand television, film and music videos. Especially useful for NZ history queries requiring a primary source or multimedia information.
- Search for 'dawn raids' to find a full-length documentary called Dawn Raids.
- Search for 'polynesian panthers' to watch Polynesian Panthers.
- This is a documentary about a group of Polynesians who came together to stand up for the rights of the Pasifika community in the face of racism and the dawn raids.
This is New Zealand's public radio service on New Zealand news, current affairs, Pacific, Te Ao Māori, sport, and business. It has links to podcasts, radio stations and on-demand radio programmes.
- Listen to Smart talk: Pacific Sound to hear Oscar Kightley talk about Pacific Island Culture in New Zealand music and experiences of the dawn raids and its huge impact on the Polynesian community. Danny 'Brotha D' Leaosavai'i explains why he named his company Dawn Raid Entertainment.
- Use the search bar and keywords 'dawn raids' to find other experiences like Melani Anae: 'We said we weren't going to take it anymore and the article Dawn raids remembered in exhibit 40 years on.
Tips: Websites that have .com or .co in the address can have good information, but you need to assess how reliable it is. Check the About us link on the website, if you can find one. That can tell you what the company’s mission and values are.
DigitalNZ is a search site that focuses on all things New Zealand. It connects you to reliable digital collections from a variety of libraries, museums, galleries, government departments, the media, community groups and others.
- Enter the words 'dawn raids' into the search box.
- Check the images Immigration - Important Notice and Prosecution is Persecution related to the dawn raids.
- Watch the video Drama - The Overstayer from Ngā Taonga Sound & Vision.
- Read the article The Terror of the Dawn raids from E-Tangata.
Tips: Websites that have .org or .net in the address can have good information, but you need to assess how reliable it is. Check the About us link on the website, if you can find one. That can tell you what the organisation’s mission and values are.
This is one of the EPIC databases. It is a collection from Bridget Williams Books. They are short books about big subjects by New Zealand writers.
- Look through the titles for The Platform: The Radical Legacy of the Polynesian Panthers.
- Melani Anae talks about the creation and history of the Polynesian Panthers and the dawn raids.
- Select a chapter from the Contents such as The terror of the dawn raids.
Tips: To get to the EPIC resources you will need a password from your school librarian first. Or you can chat with one of our AnyQuestions librarians between 1 and 6pm Monday to Friday and they will help you online. Some EPIC databases may also be available through your public library.
Maintained by the Victoria University of Wellington Library, these are digitised New Zealand and Pacific Island texts and material available for researchers but can be accessed by anyone.
This site uses Google to search, so the results will look like a normal Google search but all the results are from the NZETC.
- Enter in the search words 'dawn raids'.
- Read how the Bishop of Tonga hit out against the raids and about the use of police dogs and other irregularities used in the arrest of migrants.
Tips: We like sites like this because they’re reliable. You can tell because of their web address – they have either .govt or .ac, meaning they are from government or educational organisations. They’re also New Zealand sites, so relevant for us.
Current views on overstayers
The dawn raids happened in the 1970s. Here we will look at more recent opinions about visa overstayers and migrant workers in New Zealand.
This site has up to date New Zealand news and press releases. It's a good source for different points of view.
- Try a search for 'overstayers'.
- Use the date boxes below the search box to narrow your search results down to press releases and articles published in the past year or so.
Tips: It’s worth checking out what the other major news sites have on a topic too: CNN (American), PBS News (American), ABC News (Australian) and our own Television New Zealand. They will all have links to world news.
This is one of the EPIC resources, a collection of reliable databases covering lots of different topics. You may need a password from your school or local library to access it.
- This particular database has lots of newspaper and magazine articles.
- Search for your keywords eg 'overstayers' or 'dawn raids'.
On Sunday 1 August 2021, the New Zealand Government gave an apology for the dawn raids. This was through a speech from Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern at the Auckland Town Hall. It included a Samoan ifoga ceremony which symbolises asking for or receiving forgiveness.
This is the official website of the New Zealand Government and here you can find information about Government initiatives, policies, and Ministers. It includes transcripts of speeches.
- Select the tab Speeches.
- In the search box enter 'dawn raids'.
- Find Speech to Dawn Raids Apology to find the full transcript of the speech given by the prime minister.
Look at this site again to find news and videos about the dawn raids apology.
- Search for 'dawn raids apology'.
- To watch the full ceremony go to Government makes apology over Dawn Raids.
- Or read articles such as Ardern gives formal apology on behalf of government for Dawn Raids.
Tagata Pasifika is the Pacific news show for TVNZ (Television New Zealand).
- Enter the keywords 'dawn raids' in the search bar.
- Watch the video Pacific people react to the NZ Government's Dawn Raids apology.
There are lots of books about New Zealand history and society which include chapters or articles about the dawn raids. Check with your school or local public library to see what they have.
One recommended book title is:
- Tangata o le Moana: New Zealand and the people of the Pacific by Sean. Mallon, Kolokesa Uafā. Māhina-Tuai, Damon Ieremia Salesa.
- Dawn raid by Pauline Vaeluaga Smith.
- Hindsight: pivotal moments in New Zealand's history by Mandy Hager.
- Pacific history by Brent Coutts and Nicholas Fitness.
SCIS no: 1834461